Simply known as rugby around the world; Rugby Union is a contact team sport that was evolved in the mid of 19th Century in England. Rugby football has two game variations; rugby union and rugby league, where the difference is that rugby union allows running with the ball in the hand. The game is played between the teams of two players on a rectangular field with an oval shaped ball. Rugby is said to be originated as an incident game when William Webb from the English School Football is said to have pick and run with the ball in early 1800s.
Although, the story is quite doubtful; the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Wills. Today, the sport is played worldwide with some variations depending upon nation to nation. Rugby was showcased many a times in the Summer Olympics and from the year 2016, Rugby sevens, one of the variations of the game is included in the Summer Olympics.
The objective of both the teams is to score more goals than the other to win the match.
The historical backdrop of rugby union pursues from different football match-ups played sometime before the nineteenth century. However, it was not until the heart of that century that the rules and standards were planned and systematised. The system of football later known as rugby union can be followed to three occasions: the first set of composed principles in 1845, the Blackheath Club's choice to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the development of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was initially referred to just as "rugby football". It was not until a faction in 1895, over the instalment of players, which brought about the arrangement of the different code of rugby league, that the name "rugby union" was utilised to separate the first rugby code. For the greater part of its history, rugby was an entire novice football code, and the game's directors as often as possible forced bans and confinements on players who they saw as an expert. It was not until the year1995 that rugby union was announced an "open" amusement, and in this manner, professional skills were authorised by the code's administering body, World Rugby—at that point known as the International Rugby Football Board (IRFB).
Until 1860, rugby balls were made up of pig bladder that was covered with leather. However, unlike the modern day rugby balls, they were spherical. But after later advancements in technology, manufacturers started making leather balls which were made up of a leather bladder and were oval. This feature made the balls more durable and convenient to handle.
The rugby boots were originally high cut above the ankle. However, nowadays, players wear normal sporting shoes or mid-cut boots.
Game Rules History (major changes in rules)
Beach rugby is a variation of rugby union which is played on the sand. The field is around 30-50 metres long and 20-35 metres wide, and the sport is played with two teams of 3-7 players each. The matches are usually 10-14 minutes long with 6-7 minutes of halves' periods.
Rugby sevens is a much shorter variation of the sports of rugby union. The duration of the match is just fifteen minutes with two halves of seven minutes each plus the one-minute break. The rugby sevens field is a hundred metres long and seventy meters wide.
it is a variant of rugby union which is played indoors on an astroturf surface. The dimensions of an arena rugby field are much smaller than rugby union fields (and even rugby sevens' fields). The only way of scoring points in this game is by 'tries'.
In the game of tag rugby, defenders attempt to pull off a velcro attached tag from an attacker's body to prevent them from scoring a point. It is also called flag rugby.
Touch rugby is another variant of the sport of rugby union in which the tackle is replaced by touch.
A variant of rugby union which is played on a field covered with snow.
it is another variant of rugby union which is quite similar to rugby sevens (in terms of rules and regulations) except that it uses ten players on a team - five of which play forward, while the other fives play backwards. Matches are played in two ten minutes halves.
Mini rugby is a variant of rugby union that is suited for children. It is classified under two categories - under 9 and under 10. the field is 60x35 m in, and the matches are played in two fifteen minutes halves.
Wheelchair rugby is another variant of rugby union is suited for players with disabilities. It is played indoors on a hardwood surface with two teams of six players each. There must be only four active players in a team, and the matches are also played in four, eight minute quarters.
Two teams of 13 to 15 players compete against each other with every player being divided into forward or backs.
The players play in the following positions:-
It is also compulsory for a player to wear protective equipment like a mouthguard, head guard, and shin guard to prevent themselves from possible injuries.
Rugby Union - Goalpost
The goal is a crossbar in H-shaped form. The goal is scored by kicking or dropping the ball over the crossbar.
Rugby Union - Ball
The World Rugby sets particular dimensions for the ball (280-300mm in length, 740-770mm in the circumference of length and 580-620mm in the rim of width).
Rugby Union - Protective Cup
A hard plastic protective equipment known as the cup is worn by players to shield the genital area.
Rugby Union - Shoulder Pads
Players wear shoulder pads made of shock absorbing foam material with a hard plastic covering for protection against injuries.
Rugby Union - Shin Guards
A protective equipment worn by players to protect their shin bone from any injury.
Made from molded plastic used to protect the teeth and mouth from injuries.
Scrum Cap / Skullcap
Scrum cap is a safety headgear used by the players during a rugby match. It protects the player from severe head injuries, including lacerations and abrasions.
Rugby Union - Shoes
Very similar to the football shoes, the rugby players wear shoes with cleated soles that provide support to the ankle. The cleats must not exceed 18mm in length.
Rugby Union - Clothing
The players wear lightweight, close-fitting shirts (jersey) and shorts made from a durable synthetic material.
Passing & Catching
Hold the ball very properly the moment the player touches the ball.
Handling The Ball
When the ball is in the possession of the player and he is the carrier of the ball then he/she must be very sure that they handle the ball in a way so the possession is not lost. Handling involves moving around the ball in relation to the body.
Moving The Ball
It is one of the most important area of the rugby core skills. While moving the ball it should carefully be moved to the player who is better placed than you and thus use the ball to the best advantage as a team.
"Let the ball do the work" is a saying in the games like rugby which means move the ball with well-judged passes and you will break through defenses as the ball moves faster than the players.
Running Without The Ball
You can make a successful attack even without the ball. It is one of the surprising core rugby skills. Tune into the ball carrier and dislodge the defence.
The measurement of the rugby playing area is 144 metres in length and 70 metres in width. In the actual play there must be a distance of at least 100 metres between the two try-lines, with anywhere between 10 and 22 metres behind each try line to be as the in-goal area.
The goal posts are H-shaped, and are a set of two poles which are 5.6 metres in length and are connected with each other by a horizontal crossbar that should measure 3 metres above the ground.
Duties Before the Match
Duties During the Match
Duties After the Match
They are also known as touch judges, the assistant referees have a primary duty of indicating when the ball has gone into “touch”. Assist the referee in; watching for foul play, checking off-side lines.
Television Match Official (TMO)
His duty is to assist the referee in certain decisions and is connected with the referee with the help of radio.