Polo is an equestrian sport played between two teams of four players each. In this sport, players (sitting on the horseback) score by driving a white plastic ball into the opponent team’s goal by using a long-handled mallet. The team which scores most goals at the end of the game (usually 6 chukkas) is declared the winner. The game is nicknamed as “the sport of kings” and is played worldwide. Polo is believed to be originated in ancient Persia and dates back to the 6th century BC to the 1st century AD.
Later, the sport was passed from Persia to Asia including the Indian Subcontinent, especially in Pakistan, Chitral, etc. in the 15th – 16th century. The modern sport was derived from Manipur, India where it was known as “Sagol Kangjei”, “Pulu” or Kanjai-bazee.” The first international competition of Polo was held in 1886 when the US unsuccessfully challenged the English (at that time, the undisputed world leaders in polo) for the Westchester Cup.
To score more goals than the opponent team to win the game.
A sport of Central Asian inception, polo was believed to be first played in Persia (Iran) from the sixth century BC to the first century AD. Polo was at initial a preparation/training regime for army force units, for the most part, the king's watchman or other first-class troops. To the aggressive tribesmen, who played it with the odds of 100 a side, it was like a fight.
In time polo turned into a Persian national game played widely by the royality. Ladies just as men played the diversion, as demonstrated by references to the queen and her women drawing in King Khosrow II Parvīz and his subjects in the sixth century AD to play the game.
From Persia, the sport spread to Arabia, at that point to Tibet (the English word polo is the Balti word signifying "ball"), to China, and Japan. In China, the passing of a favoured relative during a diversion incited Emperor A-pao-chi to arrange the decapitation of every single living player who was in that game.
Polo was brought into India by the Muslim invaders in the thirteenth century; however, despite the fact that the game had been depicted in Sir Anthony Sherley's Travels to Persia (1613), the first Europeans to play the game were British tea farmers in Assam, who shaped the first European polo club in 1859 at Silchar. The Calcutta Polo Club was framed in the mid-1860s. Polo spread quickly after a commander in the tenth Hussars positioned in India saw a match right off the bat in 1866 and promptly shaped a group from among his officers to play the game themselves. Before the year finished, casual matches were held between British army units positioned in India. Polo developed quickly in England, with events at Richmond Park and Hurlingham drawing in a huge number of 10,000 onlookers by 1875. After the military had presented it, the game of polo stayed famous with them yet, in addition, spread to the colleges and was well known with the respectability and sovereignty.
In 1876, the sportsman and paper distributor James Gordon Bennett saw his first polo diversion and presented it in the United States. Soon after that casual matches were being played in New York City and by 1877 at Jerome Park circuit in Westchester County, N.Y.
Despite the fact that the guidelines of the Hurlingham Club of England (which was established in 1886) were at first utilised in the United States, in 1888 a set of rules for handicapping players was formulated to level tournament play.
The Polo Association, later the United States Polo Association, was established in 1890 and helped institutionalise the guidelines. Polo spread all through the nation, despite the fact that the amusement since quite a while ago stayed one for the rich as a result of the cost of procuring and managing a stable of polo horses.
The primary international game occurred in 1886 when the United States ineffectively tested the English, at that point the undisputed world champions in polo, for the Westchester Cup.
After 1909 the style of the game transformed from the moderately slow English type of play portrayed by short, controlled hitting. American polo players utilised a long-hitting, quick moving, wide-open style that reformed the game. The standards of the two nations were in the end absorbed, the United States embracing the English guideline allowing a player to hook an opponent’s stick with his mallet, while the English surrendered their offside principle that prohibited players behind the ball.
Polo turned into the Argentine national game, and the total number of teams formed in that country surpassed 60,000. Worldwide matches commercially sponsored (basically at Boca Raton, Fla.) were held during the 1970s, and European titles were first held in 1980.
Snow polo is played on a snow polo field which is around 170 yards x 80 yards.
It is the outdoor sport played on a 300 x 160 yards flat, grass field.
It is played on an enclosed all-weather surface or in the indoor arena which is 300 x 150 feet field enclosed by at least 4 feet high walls.
Two teams of four players each compete against each other. The players are referred by their playing positions that are Number one, Number two, Number three and Number four. The players have certain responsibilities based on their playing position.
Polo - Saddle
Polo saddles are similar to jumping saddles and do not have the padded knee rolls.
Polo - Ball
The manufacturing of a polo ball should be considered wisely to attain maximum strike rate. The balls were earlier made from bamboo and now have evolved to high impact plastic. The polo balls specification varies mostly depending on the purpose of the game.
Polo - Mallet
The polo mallet is an L-shaped stick that is used to strike the polo ball while riding a pony. The mallet is an essential equipment which serves a vital role in scoring.
Bandages are used for horses that protect their cannons (lower legs) from the mallet hits.
Polo - Gloves
Players usually wear gloves at least in the mallet hand to improve their grip.
Sometimes face masks attached with the helmets are worn to protect the face from injuries.
Polo - Boots
Well-fitting, knee-length leather boots are worn that protects the lower legs of the players from injuries caused by bumps and balls.
Polo - Helmet
Players wear an equestrian helmet with a harness to protect their head in case of falling from the horseback or hitting the ball. These helmets display the player’s team color.
Polo - Knee Pads
Smooth leather pads are used to protect the knees from injuries caused by the knocks and flying balls.
Polo - Clothing
Players wear collared polo shirts bearing a number indicating the player’s position with white trousers.
It is a defensive technique which is used to stop the opposing player when he/she is about to hit the ball. Hooking above the shoulder level or in front of the horse’s legs is a foul that is penalized by a free hit.
This technique is executed by pushing against the opponent team’s player to get him/her out of the line of the ball must be done from an angle of less than 45 degrees.
The playing field of polo (outdoor polo) is 300 x 160 yards (maximum width 200 yards) which is equivalent to nine American football fields while for arena polo it is 96 x 46 meters. The goal posts at least 3 meters high are set 8 yards apart and are centered at each end of the field. The surface of the outdoor polo field requires constant ground maintenance to keep it in a good playing condition.
The game is controlled by two umpires who are mounted to enable them to keep close to play. All decisions taken by the umpires are considered as final.
The referee remains off the field of play in a central position and his/her decision is final in the event of any disagreement between the umpires.
Goal judges stand behind each goal area and give approval to the goals or other point of the games near the goal on umpire’s request only.
The beginning and end of each period is signaled by a timekeeper who is responsible for timekeeping.
Responsible for keeping a record of the scores.