American rules football is a team sport played in the United States which is commonly referred to as football in the US and Canada and is famously known as “gridiron football” or simply “gridiron”. The sport is played on a rectangular field with goal-posts at the end by two teams of eleven players each with an oval-shaped ball. The sport was originated in the United States and is the combination of association football and rugby. It is also the most popular game in the country whereas, professional and college football are the two most popular forms of the sport. The objective is to score more points by the way of more number of goals than the opponent team in order to win the game.
The historical backdrop of American football can be followed to early forms of rugby football and association football. The two diversions have their source in assortments of football played in Britain in the mid-nineteenth century, in which a football is kicked at an objective or kicked over a line, which this way depended on the assortments of English public school football match-ups.
American football came about because of a few noteworthy divergences from association football and rugby football, most outstandingly the rules changes founded by Walter Camp, a Yale University and Hopkins School graduate who is viewed as the "Father of American Football". Among these critical changes were the presentation of the line of scrimmage, of down-and-remove rules and of the sanctioning of blocking.
In the late nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries, ongoing interaction advancements by school mentors, for example, Eddie Cochems, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Parke H. Davis, Glenn "Pop" Warner, and Knute Rockne helped exploit the recently presented forward pass.
The school football became famous as it turned into the simplified variant of the game in the United States for the central portion of the twentieth century. Bowl games, a school/college football traditions, pulled in a national group of onlookers for school groups. Helped by furious contentions and beautiful conventions, school football still holds broad intrigue in the United States.
The root of professional football can be followed back to the year 1892 when William "Pudge" Heffelfinger agreed to play in a game for the Allegheny Athletic Association against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club for a $500 contract. In 1920 the American Professional Football Association (APFA) was shaped. This group changed its name to the National Football League (NFL) after two years, and in the long run, turned into the significant alliance of American football. Fundamentally a game of Modern Midwestern towns in the United States, proficient football, in the end, turned into a national marvel.
The cutting edge time of American football can be considered to have started after the 1932 NFL Playoff game, which was the main indoor diversion since 1902 and the primary American football match-up to highlight hash mark - forward passes anyplace behind the line of scrimmage - and the movement of the goal posts back towards the goal line. Different developments to happen following 1932 were the presentation of the AP Poll in 1934, the decreasing of the closures of the football in 1934, the granting of the first Heisman Trophy in 1935, the first NFL draft in 1936, and the first broadcasted game in 1939.
Another momentous occasion was the American football match-up at the 1932 Summer Olympics, which joined with a comparable showing game at 1933 World's Fair, prompted the first College All-Star Game in 1934, which this way was a vital factor in the development of professional football in the United States.
American football's blast in fame amid the second 50% of the twentieth century can be followed to the 1958 NFL Championship Game, a challenge that has been named the "Best Game Ever Played". An adversary association to the NFL, the American Football League (AFL), started playing in 1960; the weight it put on the senior alliance prompted a merger between the two groups and the making of the Super Bowl, which has turned into the most sat in front of the TV occasion in the United States on a yearly premise.
1. Field Football - An Indoor form of the sport played on a smaller field
2. Canadian Football - A rendition with little contrasts to American football, played in Canada
3. Six-man Football - Change with only six players for every group rather than the standard 11
4. Eight-man Football - A variety of American Football, played principally at secondary school level in the US, by schools that have little understudy enlistments
5. Nine-Man Football - An adjusted form of American Football with nine players in each group, played predominantly in the US secondary schools that have short enlistments
6. Flag Football - Rather than handling players to the ground; the defensive team needs to expel the flag or a flag belt from the ball bearer
7. Sprint Football (some time ago lightweight football) - A USA varsity sport by lightweight players which underlines speed and spryness
8. Touch Football - A form of American Football, whereas opposed to handling players to the ground, the individual conveying the ball should be touched
9. Lingerie Football - American Football played by ladies wearing underwear as uniforms
10. Unicycle Football - A variety of American football in which players move around the field utilising a unicycle
11. Ultimate Football - Played with a plate (frisbee), with focuses scored by passing the disc to a partner in the opposing end zone
The game is played between two teams of eleven players each with any number of substitutions that can be availed between downs. The players are positioned in offensive, defensive and special team squads and are designated with a uniform number anywhere between 1 and 99.
Offensive Unit- The objective of the offensive unit is to put the football down the opponent’s field with the ultimate motive of scoring a touchdown.
Defensive Unit- Their role is to prevent the offensive unit from scoring the goal by tackling the carrier of the ball or by the forcing overturns.
American Rules Football - Helmet
The football helmet serves as the best armour to protect the players from head and face injuries.The helmet features an outer shell made from hard plastic with thick padding on the inside.
American Rules Football - Ball
The American football ball also referred to as the pigskin or a gridiron football has a rough similarity to a prolate spheroid. The balls are constructed with cowhide leather ideal for professional and collegiate matches whereas, for the recreational and youth leagues, the balls are made from rubber or plastic.
American Rules Football - Shoulder Pads
One such crucial and necessary equipment is the shoulder pads that give a broad-shoulder look to the players. The pads effectively absorb the physical blows during the matches. They shield every player’s shoulders along with sternum area from injuries. These pads sometimes also guard the arm’s top and the rotator cuff.
American Rules Football - Shoes
Players wear hard plastic cleated shoes on the grassy surface and artificial surfaces; they wear shoes with molded soles.
American Rules Football - Jersey
Players wear a comfortable jersey made of spandex or nylon fabric that allows the uniform to stretch over the bulky leg and shoulder paddings.
The game is played on a rectangular field measuring 360 feet in length and 120 feet in width with goal posts at each end which are 10 feet long and 18 feet 6 inches wide. The end zones are 10 yards deep with a 6 feet end line border that indicates the back of the end zone. The team benches are placed along the restraining line between the 30 yards markers.
There are two ways of executing a kick in American Football-
Scrimmage Kicks- The offensive team members can execute this kind of kick either from behind the line of scrimmage or on the line of scrimmage. There are three types of scrimmage kick: place kicks, drop kicks, and punts. Amongst them, the place kick and the drop kicks are used to score points.
Free Kicks- Free kicks are the general kickoffs that are used to start the first and third quarters of the game. While executing this kind of kick, the ball is placed at the 35-yard line in professional and college football whereas it is placed at the 40-yard line in the high school plays.
Referee - Also known as the head referee or the chief crew, the referee is responsible for conducting the game within the laws of the sport. He is the final authority on all the rulings and also has the authority on the score and the down number in case of any dispute or disagreement.
Umpire - An Umpire stands behind the defensive line and linebackers and observes the blocks by the defensive line and defenders who are trying to break off the blocks. The umpire is situated at a place where most of the actions occur and is considered to hold the most physically dangerous officiating position.
Head Linesman - Stands at one line of scrimmage and is responsible for watching the receivers near his sideline.
Line Judge - He assists the head linesman for the other end of the line of scrimmage while looking for possible offside, encroachment, and other fouls before the snap.
Back Judge - Stand behind the defensive secondary in the middle of the field and judges the action of nearby running backs, defenders, and receivers.
Side Judge - Works downfield behind the defensive secondary on the exact sideline as the head linesman.
Back Judge - Judges the action of nearby receivers, running backs, and nearby defenders by standing deep behind the defensive secondary in the middle of the field.
Field Judge - Works downfield behind the defensive secondary on the same sideline of that of the line judge.
There are various methods of scoring in American football by which a team can win the game. The different kinds of scoring are explained as under:-
Touchdown- It is worth 6-points and is definitely the most valuable scoring method in the game of American Football.
Field Goal- It is of 3-points and is said to be scored when the ball is dropkicked or placekicked through the uprights and over the crossbars of the defense’s goalpost.
Duration & Gameplay
The football matches are of 60-minutes which are divided into two halves of 30-minutes each at the professional level, whereas the college level football matches are divided into quarters of 15 minutes each. The two halves are separated by halftime whereas the first and the third quarters are followed by a short break.
Start Of The Game
The game is conducted by a coin toss by both the captains of the teams in the presence of the referee and the winner of the toss is allowed to choose between receiving or kickoff the ball and is also given the choice of the side of the field his team wants to defend.
Advancing The Ball
The two main ways through which the offense can advance the ball: passing and running.
The officials of the game are responsible for enforcing the rules and laws of the game and keeping up with the time. All the officials carry a whistle and a weighted yellow flag which is thrown on the ground to signal that a foul has occurred. The official who has observed multiple fouls will signal by throwing his hat on the ground as a secondary signal.