Para-Athletics is an adaptation of athletics for athletes with disabilities including visual, physical and intellectual impairments. The general rules of the game are based on the rules made for able-bodied athletes. Athletes compete according to their disability classification in each event. Some compete in wheelchairs, some with prostheses and the visually impaired athletes receive guidance from the sighted guides.
The first competition of Para-athletics took place in 1952 at the Mandeville Games organized by the World War II veterans. The sport made its debut at the Summer Paralympics in 1960 and always attracted a large number of spectators and the first IPC Athletics World Championships took place in 1994 in Berlin, Germany.
To complete the race in the fastest time possible in sprints, middle/long-distances, relay events and marathon, to jump/leap as far as possible into a sandpit from a takeoff point in long and triple jump, to jump at the greatest height possible over a horizontal bar without knocking it down to the ground in high jump, to throw the primary equipment as far as possible in shot put, discus, javelin and club throw and to score maximum points in each of the five disciplines in pentathlon.
Para sports competitions were initially held in 1952 when wheelchair racing was part of the Stoke Mandeville Games which was organised for World War II veterans. It was one of the first eight games included at the first Paralympic Games in 1960 which were held in Rome, Italy.
Throughout the following 20 years, other impairment groups were added to Paralympic rivalry, and today the game is drilled by competitors in more than 120 nations making it the most played Paralympic Sport.
In 2016, the game was renamed from IPC Athletics to Para Athletics, and the International Federation was renamed to World Para Athletics.
|Sprints||100m, 200m and 400m|
|Middle-Distance||800m and 1500m|
|Long-Distance||5000m and 10000m|
|Relays||4 x 100m relay, 4 x 400m relay|
|Jumps||Long Jump, Triple Jump and High Jump|
|Throws||Shot put, Discus throw, Javelin throw and Club Throw|
Male and female athletes compete as individuals in all the events in Para-athletics except relays in which athletes compete in teams of four.
Para-Athletics - Wheelchair
Wheelchair is a necessary equipment for athletes who compete in wheelchair track and field events. These are very lightweight with pneumatic tires and must have dimensions and features specified in the IPC Athletics rules.
Para-Athletics - Helmet
The sport classes T32-34, T51-54 (athletes belonging to all track and road wheelchair races) must wear helmets having a hard protective shell to ensure protection against injuries.
Para - Athletics -Tether
When competing with a guide runner, athletes belonging to class T11 and T12 should be attached to the guide runner through a tether made from a non-elastic material. Its maximum length at its full extension must not exceed 100cm.
Para - Athletics - Eye Mask
Athletes belonging to sport classes T/F11 must wear opaque glasses which blocks out all light to ensure fair competition.
Prosthetics and Orthotics
Para-athletic classes T/F 35-38, T/F 42-47 and F51-57 may wear prosthetic or orthotic devices to ensure balanced and symmetric running.
Para-Athletics - Shoes
Athletes may choose to compete either barefoot or with footwear on one or both feet. The shoes must provide protection and stability to the feet and may have any number of spikes up to 11.
Para-Athletics - Clothing
Athletes wear either a pair of shorts/trousers and a short-sleeved or sleeveless T-shirt/vests or leotards made from lightweight material.
Running events (sprints, middle/long distance and relays) take place on a running track which is usually 400m in circumference (oval track) consisting of two parallel straights and two bends of equal radii. The track consists of a number of lanes (usually eight or nine) which are generally 1.22 m wide for individual runners.
Marathon takes place on made-up roads. The playing area of long and triple jump includes a runway, a takeoff board and a sandpit which is the landing area. High jump venue includes a semicircular runway, a horizontal bar of approximately 4 meters long placed on two long vertical uprights over which the athletes jump on the landing area. The playing area for throws events includes a throwing circle/runway, a protective cage (for discus and club throw) and a landing area for the shot/discus/javelin/club.
Responsible for starting the race by giving commands like “on your marks” and “set,” for firing the start gun and also responsible for making disqualifications and warnings.
Responsible for recording the running times of the athletes.
Coordinate the work of the judges and validate the attempt of the athletes by indicating a fair jump/throw with a white flag and a foul jump/throw with a red flag.
Record all attempts made by the competitors and verify the results at the end of each round.
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